Here we present manuscripts published in peer refereed journals that were supported by BRT.


Preventing Reading Disabilities in Prekindergarten Using a Technology-Aided Tool 
A critical gap exists between research-driven early reading disability (RD) prevention efforts and practice. To help bridge this gap, we describe the development of a technology-based tool to help preschool teachers implement responsive “assessment-guided” practices (screening, intentional teaching, and reflective monitoring, evaluation, and individualizing of learning progress) to reduce children’s risk for RD prior to school entry. Sáez, L. M. & Irvin, P. S. Education Technology Research and Development (2022). 


Changes in Status and Performance Over Time for Students With Specific Learning Disabilities
With the shift from No Child Left Behind (NCLB) to Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), accountability models are being changed. Given the past 15 years of reporting on student subgroups and 10 years using various growth models, accountability systems can now be better informed. In this study, we analyze identification and services of students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs). Tindal, G. & Anderson, D. Learning Disability Quarterly. 2019;42(1):3-16.


Accommodations in Digital Interactive STEM Assessment Tasks: Current Accommodations and Promising Practices for Enhancing Accessibility for Students with Disabilities
In this article, we describe current research findings on assessment accommodations and universal design within the context of emerging interactive digital assessment tasks that employ simulations such as in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The intention is to inform educators, school administrators, state and local policy makers, and assessment developers on the availability and use of accommodations in interactive assessment contexts such as simulation, and what is needed to ensure appropriate accessibility for SWD. Scalise, K., Irvin, P. S., Alresheed, F., Zvoch, K., Yim, H., Park, S., Landis, B., Meng, P., Kleinfelder, B., Halladay, L. & Partsafas, A. Journal of Special Education Technology. 2018;33(4):219-236.


A Validity Argument for a Mathematics Curriculum-Based Measure: Implications for Response to Intervention Decision-Making
Within a response to intervention (RTI) framework, many schools initially group students into tiers on the basis of normative achievement. Using a screener and benchmarks with curriculum-based measurement (CBM), students are classified as being academically “at-risk” or not. In the current study, we present a validity argument for the use of a mathematics CBM as a classification tool within RTI and explore the relation between a fall CBM administration and state accountability test results using a large sample in Oregon (located in the Pacific Northwest in the United States) through regression analyses. Park B. J., Anderson, D. Tindal, G. & Alonzo, J. Journal of Educational Administration and Policy. 2017;2:33-46.

Estimating School Effects with a State Testing Program Using Transition Matrices
For the past decade, the accountability model associated with No Child Left Behind (NCLB) emphasized proficiency on end of year tests; with Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) the emphasis on proficiency within statewide testing programs, though now integrated with other measures of student learning, nevertheless remains a primary metric for reporting achievement. We examine transition over categories across two years for three cohorts of middle school students as one means for evaluating change. school effects. Tindal, G., Nese, J. F. T. & Stevens, J. J. Educational Assessment. 2017;22(3):189-204.

Exploring the Robustness of a Unidimensional Item Response Theory Model with Empirically Multidimensional Data
In this article, we investigate the dimensionality of interim mathematics tests and evaluate the extent to which modeling minor dimensions in the data change model parameter estimates. Anderson, D., Kahn, J. D. & Tindal, G. Applied Measurement in Education. 2017;30(3):163-177. DOI: 10.1080/08957347.2017.1316277

Assessment of Students with Learning Disabilities: Using Students’ Performance and Progress to Inform Instruction (Part Book Conclusionr)
This part conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters. The part focuses on the assessment of complex thinking and the use of studies of response processes that to provide validity evidence for score meaning in light of the next generation of standards in mathematics, science, and English language arts. Tindal, G., Alonzo, J., Sáez, L. & Nese, J. F. T. In K. Ercikan & J. W. Pellegrino (Eds.). (2017). Validation of Score Meaning in the Next Generation of Assessments: The Use of Response Processes (1st ed.). 113-126. Routledge.


Modeling Reading Growth in Grades 3 to 5 with an Alternate Assessment
Our study represents a unique context in which a reading assessment, calibrated to a common scale, was administered statewide to students in consecutive years across Grades 3 to 5. Farley, D., Anderson, D., Irvin, P. S. & Tindal, G. Remedial and Special Education. 2017;38(4):195-206.

Achievement Gaps for Students with Disabilities: Stable, Widening, or Narrowing on a State-wide Reading Comprehension Test?
Reading comprehension growth trajectories from 3rd to 7th grade were estimated for 99,919 students on a state reading comprehension assessment. We examined whether differences between students in general education (GE) and groups of students identified as exceptional learners were best characterized as stable, widening, or narrowing. Schulte, Ann C., Stevens, Joseph J., Elliott, Stephen N., Tindal, G. & Nese, Joseph F. T. Journal of Educational Psychology, 2018;108(7):925–942.

Influence of Opportunity to Learn Indices and Education Status on Students’ Mathematics Achievement Growth
We examined instructional processes in classrooms where students with and without disabilities received mathematics instruction to understand the relationship among key instructional process variables and achievement as measured by interim and end-of-year summative assessments. Elliott, S. N., Kurz, A., Tindal, G. & Yel, N. Remedial and Special Education. 2017;38(3):145-158.

Using Explicit and Systematic Instruction to Support Working Memory
Differences in working-memory capacity affect how students learn new skills and complete activities. Students with learning disabilities often experience challenges associated with limited working-memory capacity. This article offers strategies both for recognizing and supporting working-memory processing constraints and to facilitate working-memory processing during reading and math instruction. Smith, J. L. M., Sáez, L. & Doabler, C. T. TEACHING Exceptional Children. 2016;48(6):275-281.

The Relation Between Smarter Balanced and easyCBM Mathematics and Reading Assessments
This study investigated the relation between the easyCBM Benchmark Assessments in both mathematics and reading and the Smarter Balanced assessment, widely adopted across the United States. Alonzo,  J. Journal of School Administration Research and Development. 2016;1(1):p17-35.

Individual Differences in Kindergarten Through Grade 2 Fluency Relations
Using structural equation modeling, we modeled Kindergarten letter sounds, Grade 1 word reading, and Grade 2 passage reading fluency with 2302 students to identify early fluency differences in the emergence and growth of beginning reading skills for each fluency group. Sáez,  L.,  Nese,  J.  F.  T.,  Alonzo,  J.  &  Tindal,  G. Learning and Individual Differences. 2016;49:100-109.

Technology-based Assessment and Problem Analysis (Book Chapter)
This chapter discusses features of technology-based assessments particularly relevant for applications in school settings implementing response to intervention (RTI). Using easyCBM®, a popular learning management system developed to support RTI, the chapter illustrates measurement development and delivery that can provide instructionally relevant reports. Three important constructs are addressed that need additional research and development: measurement sufficiency, instructional adequacy, and data-based decision making. Tindal, G. & Alonzo, J. (Eds.). (2016). Handbook of Response to Intervention. 473–492. Springer, Boston, MA.

Documenting Reading Achievement and Growth for Students Taking Alternate Assessments.
Using data from Oregon’s AA-AAS in Reading during the period 2008–2009 to 2010–2011, we examined the achievement growth for a sample of 1,061 elementary students using two growth models: a transition matrix and a multilevel linear growth model. Tindal, G., Nese, J. F. T., Farley, D., Saven, J. L. & Elliott, S. N. Exceptional Children. 2016;82(3):321-336.

Achievement Gaps for Students with Disabilities: Stable, Widening, or Narrowing on a State-wide Reading Comprehension Test.
Reading comprehension growth trajectories from 3rd to 7th grade were estimated for 99,919 students on a state reading comprehension assessment. We examined whether differences between students in general education (GE) and groups of students identified as exceptional learners were best characterized as stable, widening, or narrowing. Schulte, A. C., Stevens, J. J., Elliott, S. N., Tindal, G. & Nese, J. F. T.  Journal of Educational Psychology. 2016;108(7):925–942.

Patterns of Statewide Test Participation for Students With Significant Cognitive Disabilities.
In this study, we tracked test participation for two cohorts of students with a documented disability over 3 years. Saven, J. L., Anderson, D., Nese, J. F. T., Farley, D. & Tindal, G. The Journal of Special Education. 2016;49(4):209–220.


The Hidden Reason Why Some Kids Can’t Follow Your Directions: Unlocking Multi-Step Directions.
In this article, we focused on the role of working memory because it is crucial for completing day-to-day tasks and frequently goes unnoticed. Sáez, L.