Here we present our earlier research, studies, and educational strategies.


Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Instruction and Evaluation
Reading comprehension is a skill, and like other skills, it can be taught. Because reading is an active process, the primary goal of reading instruction is to teach students how to interact with text in order to derive meaning from it. Crawford, L., Butera, D. & Tindal, G.   
M8_Reading Comprehension_Crawford_ETAL   


Improving Science Performance Outcomes via Instructional Framing and Rule-Based Learning
his monograph contains a brief overview of the fundamentals of reading comprehension, instructional strategies designed to increase reading comprehension, and techniques for evaluating comprehension. Tindal, G., McCollum, S., Thomas, C. & Schnacker, L.  RR20_Instructional Framing_Tindal_ETAL

Understanding Science Benchmarks by Anchoring Student (Mis)understanding
In this study, a science unit on matter was taught to four classes of sixth-grade students and an outcome measure was administered that included both fact label matching and problem-solving essay tasks. Tindal, G. & McCleery, J.    RR19_Science Benchmarks_Tindal_McCleery 


Additive versus Systemic Perspectives on Reform: A Case Sudy of Multi-Age Programs
Marr, J., Tindal, G., McCullum, N., Kaufman, M. J. & Goldman, P. RR18_Multi-Age Programs_Marr_Tindal_ETAL

Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) from a Student Performance Assessment Perspective: A study of Variance
In this study, we use three reading measures in a multi-age primary program (Grades 2 and 3) to investigate student differences: (a) across groups, (b) by age-grade, and (c) within individuals over time. Tindal, G., Marr, J., Hall, T., Cole, C., McCullum, N. & Goldman, P.    
RR17_Study of Variance_Tindal_ETAL

Converging Paths of Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) and Inclusion in a Multi-Age Primary Program: One School’s Experience
In this study, we describe one school’s experience with general education reform that is conceptually and philosophically aligned with inclusion of students with mild disabilities and coordination between general and special education programs. Tindal, G., Marr, J., Hall, T., Cole, C., McCullum, N. & Goldman, P.    RR16_Converging Paths_Tindal_ETAL

Construction and Use of Behavior Rating Scales
This monograph presents a comprehensive review of behavioral rating scales from four vantages.
Lee, C. & Tindal, G. M6_Behavior Rating Scales_Lee_Tindal

Reading Retells as a CurriculumBased Measure
This study focuses on reading retells as a sensitive measure of reading comprehension over time.Tindal, G., Gleason, M. & Kraus, J. M7_Reading Retells_Tindal_ETAL


Understanding Instructional Outcome Options for Students with Learning Disabilities in Content Classes
This study documents and analyzes a range of instructional outcomes for reconceptualizing student success in content classes. These options are applicable for all students, but may be particularly appropriate or critical for students with learning disabilities. Tindal, G., Nolet, V., McCollum, S. & Wegmann, C.
RR15_Instructional Outcome Options_Tindal_ETAL


A Case Study on Placing Talented and Gifted Students into the Appropriate Instructional Level and Monitoring Learning Rate
This report describes procedures for placing talented and gifted (TAG) students into instructional levels (materials) and ascertaining their learning rates in middle school content areas. Tindal, G., Nolet, V., Wegmann, C. & McCollum, S.     RR7_Talented and Gifted_Tindal_ETAL

Content Collaboration in Middle Schools: A Case Study Supporting Instruction in Critical Thinking Skills
This research report discusses methods for providing mildly handicapped students an appropriate educational program in secondary content classrooms. McCollum, S., Tindal, G. & Nolet, V.   RR8_Content Collaboration_McCollum_ETAL

Progress Monitoring of Student Learning: Case studies from the Classroom
This monograph, focusing on progress monitoring of basic skills, represents the culmination of a full year’s worth of effort by all teachers who authored a student case. Tindal, G. & Kurlinski, E. RR14_Progress Monitoring_Tindal_Kurlinski

Case Studies in Progress Monitoring
This monograph, focusing on progress monitoring of basic skills, represents the culmination of a full year’s worth of effort by all teachers who authored a student case. Tindal, G., Schuey, J. & Merchant, K.  RR11_Progress MonitoringTindal_ETAL

Designing Educational Programs Aligned with Reforms in Teaching and Uniform Restructuring in Education: Rationale and Basic Operating Principles
The purpose of this paper is to describe the relationships among interdependent systemic processes (i.e., connectivi-ty­redundancy, specialization-generalization, critical minimum specification, and self-organiza,tion) and resource use strategies (team building, consultation, information feedback) within the context of a specific school reform/restructuring effort (e.g., non graded, multi-age, primary developmental block). Tindal, G., Goldman, P., Kaufman, M. J. & Schmuck, R. M5_Educational Programs


The Portfolio Concept with Applications in Curriculum-Based Measurement
This portfolio applies the concept of keeping data on students over time using the tools of Curriculum-based measurement (CBM). With the standardization of CBM assessment tools in the long term portfolio, educators will be able to use this document to represent student performance over time, within and across classes, and across abilities. Hall, T. & Tindal, G.  RR13_Portfolio Concept_Hall_Tindal

Curriculum-Based Research: Reports from the Oregon Conference
The Oregon Conference is a large regional colloquium for special educators, hosted annually by the University of Oregon College of Education. For the past three years, the Conference has published a mono­graph to document its proceedings. The monograph is essentially a compilation of articles to accompany many of the presentations. Marr, J. & Tindal, G.  M3_Curriculum-Based Research_Marr_Tindal

In Search of a New Model: Three Essays on Staff Development
In attempting to explain and control variance in our educational practices, we focus on three strate­gies that have one common characteristic: They all are based on teachers working with each other to develop, communicate, examine, and modify instructional practices. Tindal, GM4_Staff Development_Tindal


Measurement Precision for Screening-Eligibility Decisions: An Application of Writing CBM
Of the five indices, the percent of words spelled correctly in a three-minute writing sample (% CSWd) showed greatest measure­ment sensitivity for screening applications.
Parker, R., Tindal, G. & Hasbrouck, J.   RR10_Writing CBM_Parker_ETAL 

Analysis of Grades 3-5 Math Curricula for Production of Survey Diagnostic Tests
This project produced and pilot-tested survey diagnostic tests for Grades 3, 4, and 5, based on the Open Court math curriculum. Parker, R.   RR12_Survey Diagnostic Tests_Parker

Assessment Practices for Determining Instructional Level and Learning Rate
This monograph describes procedures for placing students into instructional levels (materials) and ascertaining their learning rates. Most of the content represents a distillation of information from Classroom-based Assessment: Evaluating Instructional Outcomes (Tindal & Marston, 1990). Tindal, G.   M2_Determining Instructional Level_Tindal


The Factor Structure of Direct, Objective Writing Indices for Students in Compensatory and Special Education Programs
For this study, eight methods were used to objectively score 6-minute writing samples from students in compensatory and specialized educational programs. Each sample also was evaluated subjectively by four trained judges who used a holistic judgment of “communicative effectiveness.” Parker, R. & Tindal, G.  RR2_Factor Structure_Parker_Tindal

Assessment in Preschool and Kindergarten 
The issues involved in the assessment of pre­school and kindergarten children are sometimes similar and sometimes different from those involv­ing assessment of older students. Some of these issues are discussed in the following section. Hasbrouck, J.    M1_Assessment in Preschool_Hasbrouck