Here we present technical reports of the process or results of our research.

2021

The Alignment Between easyCBM Mathematics and Literacy Assessments and State and National Standards. (Technical Report No. 2101). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we present the results of a 2020-2021 study of the alignment between the easyCBM© mathematics and literacy assessments and the content standards adopted in the fifty U.S. states. The study used a three-wave process. First, a team of researchers gathered the status of state standard information for mathematics and English language arts (ELA) standards across grades K-8 for all 50 U.S. states. Three main groups were identified: CCSS Adopted (20 – ELA & Math), CCSS Revised (24 – ELA, 28 – Math) and State Unique (6 – ELA, 2 Math). Next, the team analyzed the alignment between the standards and the easyCBM© literacy measures. Finally, the team analyzed the alignment between the standards and the easyCBM© mathematics measures. This technical report describes the process used in the alignment study and provides the results of the analysis. Sáez, L., Whitney, M., Swanson, D. & Alonzo, J.  TechRpt_2101

2020

Development of the Prekindergarten Learning Receptiveness Assessment (LRA) Greenhouse: Process and Preliminary Findings. (Technical Report No. 2001). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report we document the development and piloting of the Learning Receptiveness Assessment (LRA) Greenhouse for Prekindergarten. This technological tool was designed to prevent reading disabilities by supporting effective assessment-guided instructional decision-making by Preschool teachers. The LRA Greenhouse comprises a tablet-based formative assessment and app-enabled research-based intentional teaching activity plans, monitoring checklist, and reports; it also includes a support website containing printable curriculum materials, online training modules, and teacher resources. Sáez, L. & Irvin, P. S.
TechRpt 2001

2019

Initial Norms for the easyCBM® Spanish Language Vocabulary Assessments.(Technical Report No. 1901). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical brief describes the easyCBM® Spanish language Vocabulary assessments added to the easyCBM® system in the fall of 2018 and provides the initial norms for the fall and winter assessments. These norms should be interpreted with caution, as the sample was smaller than ideal, particularly for the Winter norms.  Alonzo, J.    TechRpt_1901

ReadWorks Article-A-DayTM: Using a Maze Assessment to Test the Impact of Building Background Knowledge on Reading Comprehension. (Technical Report No. 1902). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This study was premised on the importance of vocabulary in comprehending text. Critical findings from both the National Reading Plan (NRP) and the National Reading Technical Assistance Center (NRTAC) frame this study, both in the intervention that was implemented and in the manner in which outcomes were measured. Using expository passages developed by ReadWorks, teachers implemented an ‘Article-A-Day’ with students reading brief expository passages. In this particular study, the passages focused on endangered plants and their survival, though the full domain of passages available in ReadWorks is extensive and addresses many other topics. The primary question was whether this strategy was more effective in supporting reading comprehension than when students did not consistently read passages on a daily basis. Nobles, S., Anderson, D., Raman, M., Laird, K. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1902

2018

Classification Accuracy of the easyCBM Kindergarten – Grade 2 Reading Measures. (Technical Report No. 1801). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we present results of classification accuracy analyses to identify cut scores to optimize sensitivity and specificity for the easyCBM literacy assessments in Kindergarten through Grade 2. Alonzo, J. & Anderson, D.   TechRpt_1801

Project ICEBERG Exploration: Using Implementation Science to Guide Preschool Reading Disabilities Prevention. Technical Report No. 1802). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon.  In this technical report, implementation strategies from the first two years of Project ICEBERG exploration are described. Over this period of time, a new preschool assessment, curricular activity, and teacher training tool called the Learning Receptiveness Assessment-Greenhouse application, was iteratively developed, refined, and piloted to better support preschool children’s literacy, behavioral, and working memory processing skills and facilitate improved learning as they approach the transition to kindergarten and beyond.  Irvin, P. S., Sáez, L,, Pilger, M., Alonzo, J., Squires, J., Twombly, L., &  Tindal, G.   TechRpt_1802

In-Brief: Reliability of the Slope of the easyCBM® Reading Measures. (Technical Report No. 1803). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This in-brief technical report documents the results from two different analytic approaches for examining the reliability of the slope for easyCBM® reading measures in Grades K-8. Results varied by grade, assessment measure, and the analytic approach. Results patterns are discussed.  Nese, J.F.T., Anderson, D., Irvin, P. S. & Alonzo, J. TechRpt_1803

In-Brief: Reliability of the Slope of the easyCBM® Math Measures. (Technical Report No. 1804). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This in-brief technical report documents the results from two different analytic approaches for examining the reliability of the slope for easyCBM® math measures in Grades K-8. Results varied by grade, assessment measure, and the analytic approach. Results patterns are discussed. Nese, J.F.T., Anderson, D., Irvin, P. S. & Alonzo, J. TechRpt_1804

Supplementary Report on easyCBM Grade K – 2 Literacy Measures: Classification Accuracy and Predictive Validity, a Follow-Up to Technical Report 1403. (Technical Report 1805). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report is an addendum to a study we initially reported on in 2014 (Wray, Lai, Sáez, Alonzo, & Tindal, 2014). In response to a request for additional analyses, in particular reporting confidence intervals around the results, we re-analyzed the data from the Wray et al study. This supplementary report presents the results of the additional analyses. Results varied by measure and grade but were generally within good or acceptable ranges for all measures and grade levels analyzed. Alonzo, J. & Anderson, D.   TechRpt_1805

Supplementary Report on easyCBM PRF Measures: A Follow-Up to Previous Technical Reports. (Technical Report No. 1806). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In response to a request for additional analyses, in particular reporting confidence intervals around the results, we re-analyzed the data from prior studies. This supplementary report presents the results of the additional analyses addressing classification accuracy, reliability, and criterion-related validity evidence. For ease of reference, we organize this technical report into sections based on the type of evidence being presented. Alonzo, J. & Anderson, D.     TechRpt_1806

Supplementary Report on easyCBM MCRC Measures: A Follow-Up to Previous Technical Report. (Technical Report No. 1807). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In response to a request for additional analyses, in particular reporting confidence intervals around the results, we re-analyzed the data from prior studies. This supplementary report presents the results of the additional analyses addressing classification accuracy, reliability, and criterion-related validity evidence. For ease of reference, we organize this technical report into sections based on the type of evidence being presented. Alonzo, J. & Anderson, D.    TechRpt_1807

2017

Oral Reading Fluency: Outcomes from 30 Years of Research. (Technical Report No. 1701). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report is about oral reading fluency, how it has been measured, the students who have been measured, and the outcomes that have been reported for both performance and progress. Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1701

An Update to Compiled ORF Norms. (Technical Report No. 1702). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes the origins of the widely used curriculum-­based measure of oral reading fluency (ORF) and how the creation and use of ORF norms has evolved over time. Hasbrouck, J., Tindal, G.   TechRpt_1702

2016

Teacher Survey of the Accessibility and Text Features of the Computerized Oral Reading Evaluation (CORE). (Technical Report No. 1601). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The purposes of this technical report are to: (a) document whether the CORE system was accessible and useful for teachers, (b) explore potential differences between CORE and traditional ORF (i.e., easyCBM) passages, and (c) identify potential deficits in the three CORE lengths (≈ 25, 50, or 85 words). This information contributes to the response-process evidence for the CORE system’s validity. Our results suggest that delivering, scoring, and storing ORF assessments online may be feasible, and desirable, for classroom teachers across Grades 2 through 4.. Kahn, J., Nese, J. F. T., Alonzo, J.     TechRpt_1601

Innovation need survey: Implementing a Technology Tool to Improve Early Data-Based Decisions to Address and Prevent Learning Disabilities (Technical Report No. 1602). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The purpose of this report is to learn about the field’s readiness to implement a tablet-based early screening system designed to support teacher decision-making and improve learning outcomes in preschool and kindergarten settings, based on input from Oregon early learning professionals. Irvin, P. S., Pilger, M., Sáez. L. & Alonzo, J.   TechRpt_1602

Distributed Item Review: Administrator User Guide. (Technical Report No. 1603). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The Distributed Item Review (DIR; Behavioral Research and Teaching, 2013) is a secure and flexible, web-based system designed to present test items to expert reviewers across a broad geographic area for evaluation of important dimensions of quality (e.g., alignment with standards, bias, sensitivity, and student accessibility). The DIR is comprised of essential features that allow system administrators to design and conduct customized review studies, in which test items are bulk uploaded, paired with target academic content/performance standards and images, and then organized and assigned for review by selected experts (e.g., content and field experts, education leaders and practitioners, education researchers, and test and curricula developers). Administrators can choose from predefined item review questions, or design new review questions pertinent to their study. Irvin, P. S.    TechRpt_1603

2015

An Exploration of Differential Item Functioning with the easyCBM Middle School Mathematics Tests: Grades 6-8 (Technical Report No. 1501). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The purpose of this technical report is to summarize the results of an investigation into the differential item functioning (DIF) of the easyCBM(R) middle school mathematics items, Grades 6-8, designed to measure the Common Core State Standards. Anderson, D., Park, S., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_1501

2014

Teacher Practices and Student Growth in Mathematics: Grades 6-8 (Technical Report No. 1401). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This study was designed to explore how teachers’ instructional practices relate to progress monitoring data in math in Grades 6 and 7. Anderson, D., Saven, J. L., Irvin, P. S., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_1401

Criterion Validity Evidence for the easyCBM CCSS Math Measures: Grades 6-8 (Technical Report No. 1402). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes a study to explore the validity of the easyCBM© CCSS Math tests by evaluating the relation between students’ scores on these measures in Grades 6-8, and the Stanford Achievement Test, 10thedition (SAT-10). Anderson, D., Rowley, B., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.     TechRpt_1402

easyCBM Beginning Reading Measures: Grades K-1 Alternate Form Reliability and Criterion Validity with the SAT-10 (Technical Report No. 1403). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. We report the results of an alternate form reliability and criterion validity study of kindergarten and grade 1 (N= 84-­‐199) reading measures from the easyCBM© assessment system and Stanford Early School Achievement Test/Stanford Achievement Test, 10th edition (SESAT/SAT-­‐10) across 5 time points. Wray, K. A., Lai, C. F., Sáez. L., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1403

Network Analysis of Beginning Reading Instruction (Technical Report No. 1404). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Network text analysis was used to identify underlying reading concepts in a kindergartengeneral education literacy instruction classroom (n=23) based on naturalistic observations. Using data from three observations, we studied how reading concepts were connected and how their presence changed over time as represented by nodes and links on structural network maps. Lai, C. F., Sáez. L., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.     TechRpt_1404

Internal Consistency of the easyCBM CCSS Math Measures Grades K-8 (Technical Report No. 1405). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report documents findings from a study of the internal consistency and split‐half reliability of the easyCBM© CCSS Math measures, grades K-­8. Wray, K. A., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1405

Internal Consistency of the easyCBM Vocabulary Measures Grades 2-8 (Technical Report No. 1406). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report documents findings from a study of the internal consistency and split‐half reliability of the easyCBM© Vocabulary measures, grades 2-8. Wray, K. A., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.     TechRpt_1406

Internal Consistency of the easyCBM CCSS Reading Measures Grades K-8 (Technical Report No. 1407). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report documents findings from a study of the internal consistency and split-half reliability of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading measures, grades 3-8. Guerreiro, M., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1407

Technical Manual: easyCBM (Technical Report No. 1408). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Since the easyCBM© learning system was first published in 2006, over $8 million of federal funding (both from the Office of Special Education Programs and more recently from the Institute of Education Sciences) has been used to develop, study, and refine the assessments available on the system. This Technical Manual summarizes the ongoing research that is the foundation of the easyCBM© assessments in reading, mathematics, and Spanish literacy.  Anderson, D., Alonzo, J., Tindal, G., Farley, D., Irvin, P. S., Lai, C. F., Saven, J. L. & Wray, K. A.  TechRpt_1408

easyCBM Norms 2014 Edition. (Technical Report No. 1409). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores fromall students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­‐14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables: region and student demographic. Saven, J. L., Tindal, G., Irvin, P. S., Farley, D. & Alonzo, J.     TechRpt_1409

2013

The Development of easyCBM Spanish Literacy Assessments for Use in Grades K-2 (Technical Report No. 1301). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this study, we describe two studies used to select appropriate assessments to measure phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, and fluency in the Spanish language for students receiving literacy instruction in Spanish. Alonzo, J., Gonzalez, M. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt1301

Examining the Internal Structure of the easyCBM Reading Measures, Grades K-5 (Technical Report No. 1302). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe a study examining the internal structures of the easyCBM reading measures, Grades K-5. Alonzo, J., Park, B. J., & Tindal, G.     TechRpt1302

Alignment with the Common Core State Standards: easyCBM K-3 Word Reading (Technical Report No. 1303). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Five hundred and seventeen words from the easyCBM Word Reading assessment (n = 57 kindergarten, 117 first grade, 172 second grade, and 171 third grade) were examined by 15 teachers for their correspondence with the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts. In particular, the degree of correspondence between Standard 3 (Phonics and Word Recognition) expectations for word reading skill and test word types was analyzed within each grade level. Sáez. L., Irvin, P. S., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1303

An Examination of the Internal Structures of the easyCBM CCSS Reading Measures (Technical Report No. 1304). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report presents the results of a confirmatory factor analysis of the internal structures of the easyCBM® CCSS reading assessments. These assessments, which include item prompts based onRead to Perform a Task, Informational Text, and Short Literary Text include a series of item prompts followed by five selected response questions targeting literal comprehension. Alonzo, J., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G.     TechRpt_1304

An examination of the internal structures of the gr. K-5 easyCBM CCSS reading measures: A construct validity study (Technical Report No. 1305). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report presents the results of a construct validity study in which we used confirmatory factor analysis to study the ways in which the different easyCBM® reading measures relate to one another. These assessments, which include item prompts based on Read to Perform a Task, Informational Text, and Short Literary Text include a series of item prompts followed by five selected response questions targeting literal comprehension. Alonzo, J., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1305

Basic Concepts of Structural Equation Modeling (Technical Report No. 1306). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report we introduce the basic concepts of structural equation modeling (SEM) for consumers of research. The purpose is to help provide readers a basis from which articles employing SEM can evaluated; but not necessarily to teach readers how to conduct an analysis. Anderson, D., Patarapichayatham, C. & Nese, J. F. T.    TechRpt_1306

Learning Progressions: Tools for Assessment and Instruction for All Learners (Technical Report No. 1307). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Conceptually, learning progressions hold promise for improving assessment and instruction by precisely outlining what students know and don’t know at particular stages of knowledge and skill development. Based upon a synthesis of the literature, a rationale for the use of learning progressions maps to clarify how learning progresses in English language arts and mathematics is provided. Sáez. L., Lai, C. F. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1307

Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM): An Introduction to Key Concepts Within Cross-Sectional and Growth Modeling Frameworks (Technical Report No. 1308). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This manuscript provides an overview of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), as part of a series of papers covering topics relevant to consumers of educational research. HLMis tremendously flexible, allowing researchers to specify relations across multiple “levels” of the educational system (e.g., students, classrooms, schools, etc.). Anderson, D.   TechRpt_1308

easyCBM Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1 (Technical Report No. 1309). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence. Lai, C. F., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1309

easyCBM Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades 2-5 (Technical Report No. 1310). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS). Lai, C. F., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_1310

Analysis of Growth on State Tests for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities (Technical Report No. 1311). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards are designed to measure the academic achievement of students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. Because this population has not previously been included in large-scale testing programs, these assessments present unique measurement challenges. Farley, D., Saven, J. L., Tindal, G. & Nese, J. F. T.   TechRpt_1311

Study of the Reliability of CCSS-Aligned Math Measures (2012 Research Version): Grades 6-8 (Technical Report No. 1312). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the results of a study of mathematics items written to align with theCommon Core State Standards (CCSS) in grades 6-8. In each grade, CCSS items were organized into forms, and the reliability of these forms was evaluated along with an experimental form including items aligned with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Focal Point Standards. The purpose of the experimental measure was to evaluate how previously existing math items functioned empirically relative to the CCSS items. Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_1312

easyCBM CCSS Math Item Scaling and Test Form Revision (2012-2013): Grades 6-8 (Technical Report No. 1313). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The purpose of this technical report is to document the piloting and scaling of new easyCBM mathematics test items aligned with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and to describe the process used to revise and supplement the 2012 research version easyCBM CCSS math tests in Grades 6-8. Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, GTechRpt_1313

The Development and Scaling of the easyCBM CCSS Elementary Mathematics Measures: Grade K (Technical Report No. 1314). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The results of formative assessments are regularly used to inform important instructional decisions (e.g., targeted intervention) within a response to intervention(RTI) system of teaching and learning. The validity of such instructional decision-making depends, in part,on the alignment between formative measures and the academic content standards on which classroom instruction is based, as well as the technical adequacy of the measures used in RTI applications.In the following technical report, we describe the development and scaling of the easyCBM Common Core State Standards elementary school mathematics measures for use within an RTI framework. Irvin, P. S., Saven, J. L., Alonzo, J., Park, B. J., Anderson, D. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1314

The Development and Scaling of the easyCBM CCSS Elementary Mathematics Measures: Grade 1 (Technical Report No. 1315). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In the following technical report, we describe the development and scaling of the easyCBM Common Core State Standards elementary school mathematics measures for use within an RTI framework. Saven, J. L., Irvin, P. S., Park, B. J., Alonzo, J., Anderson, D. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1315

The Development and Scaling of the easyCBM CCSS Elementary Mathematics Measures: Grade 2 (Technical Report No. 1316). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In the following technical report, we describe the development and scaling of the easyCBM Common Core State Standards elementary school mathematics measures for use within an RTI framework. Within a given grade, math items from two distinct item pools were calibrated to a common horizontal scale
using a 1-parameter Rasch analysis. The results of the scaling were then used to construct 13 alternate forms designed to be of comparable difficulty 3 forms designated for seasonal benchmark screening and 10 designated for progress monitoring. Irvin, P. S., Saven, J. L., Alonzo, J., Park, B. J., Anderson, D. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1316

The Development and Scaling of the easyCBM CCSS Elementary Mathematics Measures: Grade 3 (Technical Report No. 1317). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In the following technical report, we describe the development and scaling of the easyCBM Common Core State Standards elementary school mathematics measures for use within an RTI framework. Within a given grade, math items from two distinct item pools were calibrated to a common horizontal scale using a 1-parameter Rasch analysis. The results of the scaling were then used to construct 13 alternate forms designed to be of comparable difficulty 3 forms designated for seasonal benchmark screening and 10 designated for progress monitoring. Saven, J. L., Irvin, P. S., Park, B. J., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1317

The Development and Scaling of the easyCBM CCSS Elementary Mathematics Measures: Grade 4 (Technical Report No. 1318). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In the following technical report, we describe the development and scaling of the easyCBM Common Core State Standards elementary school mathematics measures for use within an RTI framework. Within a given grade, math items from two distinct item pools were calibrated to a common horizontal scale
using a 1-parameter Rasch analysis. The results of the scaling were then used to construct 13 alternate forms designed to be of comparable difficulty 3 forms designated for seasonal benchmark screening and 10 designated for progress monitoring. Irvin, P. S., Saven, J. L., Alonzo, J., Park, B. J., Anderson, D. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1318

The Development and Scaling of the easyCBM CCSS Elementary Mathematics Measures: Grade 5 (Technical Report No. 1319). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In the following technical report, we describe the development and scaling of the easyCBM Common Core State Standards elementary school mathematics measures for use within an RTI framework. Within a given grade, math items from two distinct item pools were calibrated to a common horizontal scale
using a 1-parameter Rasch analysis. The results of the scaling were then used to construct 13 alternate forms designed to be of comparable difficulty 3 forms designated for seasonal benchmark screening and 10 designated for progress monitoring. Saven, J. L., Irvin, P. S., Park, B. J., Alonzo, J., Anderson, D. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_1319

A Primer on Longitudinal Data Analysis in Education (Technical Report No. 1320). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of longitudinal data analysis in education for practitioners, administrators, and other consumers of educational research, focusing on: the purposes of longitudinal data analysis in education, some of its benefits and limitations, and the various analyses used to model student growth trajectories. Nese, J. F. T., Lai, C. F. & Anderson, D.   TechRpt_1320

2012

Analyzing the reliability of the easyCBM reading comprehension measures: Grade 2 (Technical Report No. 1201). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the second-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis, top / bottom reliability, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results suggest adequate reliability for the second grade multiple choice reading comprehension
measures. Lai, C. F., Irvin, P. S., Alonzo, J., Park, B. J., & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1201

Analyzing the reliability of the easyCBM reading comprehension measures: Grade 3 (Technical Report No. 1202). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the third-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis, top / bottom reliability, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results suggest adequate reliability for the third grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures. Lai, C. F., Irvin, P. S., Park, B. J., Alonzo, J., & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1202

Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 4 (Technical Report No. 1203). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternateform reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis, top / bottom reliability, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results suggest adequate reliability for the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures. Park, B. J., Irvin, P. S., Alonzo, J., Lai, C. F., & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1203

Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 5 (Technical Report No. 1204). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fifth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis, top / bottom reliability, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results suggest adequate reliability for the fifth grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures. Park, B. J., Irvin, P. S., Alonzo, J., Lai, C. F., & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_1204

Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 6 (Technical Report No. 1205). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis, top / bottom reliability, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results suggest adequate reliability for the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures. Irvin, P. S., Alonzo, J., Park, B. J., Lai, C. F., & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1205

Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 7 (Technical Report No. 1206). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived reliability, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results suggest adequate reliability for the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures. Irvin, P. S., Alonzo, J., Lai, C. F., Park, B. J., & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1206

The Development and Scaling of the easyCBM CCSS Middle School Mathematics Measures (Technical Report No. 1207). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In the following technical report, we describe the development and scaling of the easyCBM CCSS middle school mathematics measures, designed for use within a response to intervention framework. All items were developed in collaboration with experienced middle school mathematics teachers and were written to align with the Common Core State Standards. Items were calibrated to a common, vertical scale spanning grades 6-8. The results of the scaling analysis were then used to assemble items into 13 comparable alternate test forms in each grade, with 10 designated for progress monitoring and 3 designated for seasonal benchmarking. Evidence of alternate form equivalence is provided through both test characteristic curves (TCCs) and test information functions (TIFs). Individual item functioning is reportedin appendices by both the total pool of items piloted and by test form. Anderson, D., Irvin, P. S., Patarapichayatham, C., Alonzo, J., & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1207

The alignment of the easyCBM middle school mathematics CCSS measures to the Common Core State Standards (Technical Report No. 1208). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Within a response to intervention framework, teachers regularly base important instructionaldecisions on the results of formative assessments. The validity of these decisions depends, in part, upon the validity of the inference of students’ skills drawn from the formative assessment. If formative assessment items do not genuinely measure the skills they purport to measure that is, if they are misaligned with their content standards then the resulting inferences may be threatened. Alignment is thus critical, given the potential practical repercussions of misalignment (e.g., students denied needed interventions). In the following technical report, we report on the alignment of a randomly selected sample of roughly half the easyCBM CCSS middle school math items with the Common Core State Standards. Results suggest a high degree of alignment, with 87% of all items aligning to their corresponding standard after controlling for rater effects, and 99.6% of items aligning either to a standard or a requisite skill to the standard. Anderson, D., Irvin, P. S., Alonzo, J., & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1208

The Development of CBM Vocabulary Measures: Grade 2 (Technical Report No. 1209). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of vocabulary assessments intended for use with students in grades two through eight. These measures, available as part of easyCBM TM , an online progress monitoring and benchmark/screening assessment system, were developed in 2010 and administered to approximately 1200 students per grade from schools across the United States in the spring of 2011 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods,
results, and discussion sections.Alonzo, J., Anderson, D., Park, B. J., & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_1209

The Development of CBM Vocabulary Measures: Grade 3 (Technical Report No. 1210). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of vocabulary assessments intended for use with students in grades two through eight. These measures, available as part of easyCBM TM , an online progress monitoring and benchmark/screening assessment system, were developed in 2010 and administered to approximately 1200 students per grade from schools across the United States in the spring of 2011 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods,
results, and discussion sections. Alonzo, J., Anderson, D., Park, B. J., & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1210

The Development of CBM Vocabulary Measures: Grade 4 (Technical Report No. 1211). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of vocabulary assessments intended for use with students in grades two through eight. These measures, available as part of easyCBM TM , an online progress monitoring and benchmark/screening assessment system, were developed in 2010 and administered to approximately 1200 students per grade from schools across the United States in the spring of 2011 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods, results, and discussion sections. Alonzo, J., Anderson, D., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_1211

The Development of CBM Vocabulary Measures: Grade 5 (Technical Report No. 1212). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of vocabulary assessments intended for use with students in grades two through eight. These measures, available as part of easyCBM TM , an online progress monitoring and benchmark/screening assessment system, were developed in 2010 and administered to approximately 1200 students per grade from schools across the United States in the spring of 2011 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods,
results, and discussion sections. Alonzo, J., Anderson, D., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1212

The Development of CBM Vocabulary Measures: Grade 6 (Tehcnical Report No. 1213). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. n this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of vocabulary assessments intended for use with students in grades two through eight. These measures, available as part of easyCBM TM , an online progress monitoring and benchmark/screening assessment system, were developed in 2010 and administered to approximately 1200 students per grade from schools across the United States in the spring of 2011 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods,
results, and discussion sections. Alonzo, J., Anderson, D., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1213

The Development of CBM Vocabulary Measures: Grade 7 (Technical Report No. 1214). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. n this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of vocabulary assessments intended for use with students in grades two through eight. These measures, available as part of easyCBM TM , an online progress monitoring and benchmark/screening assessment system, were developed in 2010 and administered to approximately 1200 students per grade from schools across the United States in the spring of 2011 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods, results, and discussion sections. Alonzo, J., Anderson, D., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1214

The Development of CBM Vocabulary Measures: Grade 8 (Technical Report No. 1215). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of vocabulary assessments intended for use with students in grades two through eight. These measures, available as part of easyCBM TM , an online progress monitoring and benchmark/screening assessment system, were developed in 2010 and administered to approximately 1200 students per grade from schools across the United States in the spring of 2011 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods, results, and discussion sections. Alonzo, J., Anderson, D., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1215

An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 1 (Technical Report No. 1216). This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-­Theory / D‐Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-­5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-­sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due to the length of the results, we present results of each grade level’s analysis in its own technical report, sharing a common abstract, introduction, and methods section, while differing in the results and conclusions.Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Anderson, D., Park, B. J., Lai, C. F., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1216

An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 2 (Technical Report No. 1217). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-­Theory / D-­Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-­5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium -­sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due to the length of the results, we present results of each grade level’s analysis in its own technical report, sharing a common abstract, introduction, and methods section, while differing in the results and conclusions. Anderson, D., Lai, C. F., Park, B. J., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1217

An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 3 (Technical Report No. 1218). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon.  This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-­Theory / D-­Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-­5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-­sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due to the length of the results, we present results of each grade level’s analysis in its own technical report, sharing a common abstract, introduction, and methods section, while differing in the results and conclusions. Park, B. J., Anderson, D., Alonzo, J., Lai, C. F. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1218

An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 4 (Technical Report No. 1219). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-Theory / D-­Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a mediumsized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due to the length of the results, we present results of each grade level’s analysis in its own technical report, sharing a common abstract, introduction, and methods section, while differing in the results and conclusions. Alonzo, J., Lai, C. F., Anderson, D., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1219

An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 5 (Technical Report No. 1220). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-­Theory / D-­Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-­5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-­sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due to the length of the results, we present results of each grade level’s analysis in its own technical report, sharing a common abstract, introduction, and methods section, while differing in the results and conclusions. Lai, C. F., Park, B. J., Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1220

The Development of the easyCBM CCSS Reading Assessments: Grade 3 (Technical Report No. 1221). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we document the development and piloting of easyCBM reading measures aligned to the Common Core State Standards, designed for use in screening students at risk for reading difficulty and monitoring their progress as they develop reading skills. The measures, which assess students’ ability to respond
to multiple-­‐choice reading comprehension questions, were designed with the specific needs of students classified as “persistently low-­performing”. Sub-­tests include Read to Perform a Task, Informational Text, and Short Literary Text, organized together into a comprehensive Common Core Reading Assessment. Alonzo, J., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1221

The Development of the easyCBM CCSS Reading Assessments: Grade 4 (Technical Report No. 1222). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon.  n this technical report, we document the development and piloting of easyCBM reading measures aligned to the Common Core State Standards, designed for use in screening students at risk for reading difficulty and monitoring their progress as they develop reading skills. The measures, which assess students’ ability to respond
to multiple-­‐choice reading comprehension questions, were designed with the specific needs of students classified as “persistently low-­performing”. Sub-­‐tests include Read to Perform a Task, Informational Text, and Short Literary Text, organized together into a comprehensive Common Core Reading Assessment. Alonzo, J., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1222

The Development of the easyCBM CCSS Reading Assessments: Grade 5 (Technical Report No. 1223). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon.  In this technical report, we document the development and piloting of easyCBM reading measures aligned to the Common Core State Standards, designed for use in screening students at risk for reading difficulty and monitoring their progress as they develop reading skills. The measures, which assess students’ ability to respond
to multiple-­‐choice reading comprehension questions, were designed with the specific needs of students classified as “persistently low-­performing”. Sub-­tests include Read to Perform a Task, Informational Text, and Short Literary Text, organized together into a comprehensive Common Core Reading Assessment. Alonzo, J., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1223

The Development of the easyCBM CCSS Reading Assessments: Grade 6 (Technical Report No. 1224). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we document the development and piloting of easyCBM reading measures aligned to the Common Core State Standards, designed for use in screening students at risk for reading difficulty and monitoring their progress as they develop reading skills. The measures, which assess students’ ability to respond
to multiple-­‐choice reading comprehension questions, were designed with the specific needs of students classified as “persistently low-­performing”. Sub-­tests include Read to Perform a Task, Informational Text, and Short Literary Text, organized together into a comprehensive Common Core Reading Assessment. Alonzo, J., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1224

The Development of the easyCBM CCSS Reading Assessments: Grade 7 (Technical Report No. 1225). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we document the development and piloting of easyCBM reading measures aligned to the Common Core State Standards, designed for use in screening students at risk for reading difficulty and monitoring their progress as they develop reading skills. The measures, which assess students’ ability to respond
to multiple-­‐choice reading comprehension questions, were designed with the specific needs of students classified as “persistently low-­performing”. Sub-­tests include Read to Perform a Task, Informational Text, and Short Literary Text, organized together into a comprehensive Common Core Reading Assessment. Alonzo, J., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1225

The Development of the easyCBM CCSS Reading Assessments: Grade 8 (Technical Report No. 1226). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we document the development and piloting of easyCBM reading measures aligned to the Common Core State Standards, designed for use in screening students at risk for reading difficulty and monitoring their progress as they develop reading skills. The measures, which assess students’ ability to respond
to multiple-­‐choice reading comprehension questions, were designed with the specific needs of students classified as “persistently low-­performing”. Sub-­tests include Read to Perform a Task, Informational Text, and Short Literary Text, organized together into a comprehensive Common Core Reading Assessment. Alonzo, J., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1226

Phoneme Segmenting Alignment with the Common Core Foundational Skills Standard Two: Grades K-1 (Technical Report No. 1227). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In 2006, the easyCBM reading assessment system was developed to support the progress monitoring of phoneme segmenting, letter names and sounds recognition, word reading, passage reading fluency, and comprehension skill development in elementary schools. More recently, the Common Core Standards in English Language Arts have been introduced as a framework for outlining grade-level achievement expectations, to guide reading instruction and assessment across the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the easyCBM Phoneme Segmenting assessment contains items aligned with the Common Core StandardsSáez. L., Irvin, P. S., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1227

The Alignment of the easyCBM grades K-2 Math Measures to the Common Core Standards (Technical Report No. 1228). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we report on the alignment between easyCBM ® grades K-2 seasonal mathematics benchmark items and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Results suggest reasonable alignment to the standards overall, with areas of relatively stronger and weaker alignment across grade level domains and standards. These results serve as the basis for assessment development in school year 2012-2013 to address gaps in alignment between easyCBM ® and the CCSS. Irvin, P. S., Park, B. J., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1228

The Alignment of the easyCBM Grades 3-5 Math Measures to the Common Core Standards (Technical Report No. 1229). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we report on the alignment between easyCBM ® grades 3-5 seasonal mathematics benchmark items and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Results suggest reasonable alignment to the standards overall, with areas of relatively stronger and weaker alignment across grade level domains and standards. These results serve as the basis for assessment development in school year 2012-2013 to address gaps in alignment between easyCBM ® and the CCSS.Park, B. J., Irvin, P. S., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1229

The Alignment of the easyCBM Grades 6-8 Math Measures to the Common Core Standards (Technical Report No. 1230). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we report on the alignment between easyCBM ® grades 6-8 seasonal mathematics benchmark items and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Results suggest reasonable alignment to the standards overall, with areas of relatively stronger and weaker alignment across grade level domains and standards. These results serve as the basis for assessment development plan in school year 2012-2013 to address gaps in alignment between easyCBM ® and the CCSS.Irvin, P. S., Park, B. J., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1230

2011

easyCBM Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Washington State Test 2009-2010  (Technical Report No. 1101). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we report on an extension of this research, examining the relation between easyCBM® and the test used for accountability in Washington state. We conduct regression and correlation analyses to examine the relation between the measures, and use scatterplots to illustrate this relation with respect to cut scores. Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1101

The Development and Technical Adequacy of Seventh-Grade Reading Comprehension Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System (Technical Report No. 1102). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes the process of development and piloting of reading comprehension measures that are appropriate for seventh-grade students as part of an online progress screening and monitoring assessment system, http://easycbm.com. Each measure consists of an original fictional story of approximately 1,600 to 1,900 words with 20 multiple choice questions assessing students’ literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension skills. Three answer options are provided for each question: correct, near correct, and far correct. All measures were piloted with seventh-grade students whose teachers responded to the pilot invitation on the official easyCBM website. The data were analyzed using one parameter Item Response Theory (IRT) modeling. Complete results of the pilot testing are presented and discussed. Park, B. J., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_1102

easyCBM Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Oregon State Test 2009-2010 (Technical Report No. 1103). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we examine the relation between the easyCBM® reading tests and the reading portion of the state test used for accountability in Oregon. We conduct regression and correlation analyses to examine the relation between the measures, and use scatterplots to illustrate this relation with respect to cut scores. Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1103

A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Mathematics Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010 (Technical Report No. 1104). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM® mathematics test in Oregon. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students’ performance classification on the Oregon state test was used as the criterion. Optimal cut scores were examined for each group. Results indicate quite stable cut scores across groups. Further, the overall area under the ROC curve (AUC) was not statistically different between groups for any measurement occasion at any grade, providing strong evidence of the validity of the cut scores as optimal to predict student performance on the Oregon statewide large-scale assessment. Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_1104

A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Mathematics Cut Scores in Washington State: 2009-2010 test (Technical Report No. 1105). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM® mathematics test in the state of Washington. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students’ performance classification on the Washington state test was used as the criterion. Optimal cut scores were examined for each group. Results indicate quite stable cut scores across groups. Further, the overall area under the ROC curve (AUC) was not statistically different between groups for any measurement occasion at any grade, providing strong evidence of the validity of the cut scores as optimal to predict student performance on the Washington statewide large-scale assessment.Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1105

Diagnostic Efficiency of easyCBM Reading: Oregon (Technical Report No. 1106). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In the following technical report, we describe a process for choosing appropriate cut-points on the benchmark screener and then apply this process to the easyCBM ® reading benchmark tests using a sample from three districts in Oregon. The most appropriate cut-point may vary dramatically by the population assessed and the criterion used to establish “true” risk. The diagnostic efficiency of easyCBM ® is evaluated with respect to the cut-points and the overall effectiveness of the measures to correctly predict student classification (meeting/not meeting standards) on the Oregon state test. Results are presented for both the full sample and for each of seven different subgroups, when n 50. Park, B. J., Anderson, D., Irvin, P. S., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_1106

Diagnostic Efficiency of easyCBM Reading: Washington State (Technical Report No. 1107). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In the following technical report, we describe a process for choosing appropriate cut-points on the benchmark screener and then apply this process to the easyCBM ® reading benchmark tests using a sample from two districts in Washington state. The most appropriate cut-point may vary dramatically by the population assessed and the criterion used to establish “true” risk. The diagnostic efficiency of easyCBM ® is evaluated with respect to the cut-points and the overall effectiveness of the measure to correctly predict student classification (meeting/not meeting standards) on the Washington state test. Results are presented for both the full sample and for each of seven different subgroups, when n 50. Anderson, D., Park, B. J., Irvin, P. S., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1107

A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Reading Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010 (Technical Report No. 1108). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon.  This technical report presents results from a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut scores when using easyCBM ® reading tests in Oregon. The cross-validation study analyzes data from the 2009-201 academic year for easyCBM® reading measures. A sample of approximately 2,000 students per grade, randomly split into two groups of roughly the same size, was used for this study. Students state test performance classification (passing/not passing) on the Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (OAKS) was used as the criterion. Optimal cut scores were identified for each of the randomly split groups with a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Results indicated reasonably stable cut scores between groups. Further, the overall area under the ROC curve (AUC) was not statistically different between groups for any measurement occasion at any grade, providing strong evidence for the validity of identified cut scores as optimal to predict student performance classification on the Oregon state large-scale assessment. Park, B. J., Irvin, P. S., Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1108

A Cross-Validation of easyCBM Reading Cut Scores in Washington: 2009-2010 (Technical Report No. 1109). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report presents results from a cross-validation study designed to identify optima cut scores when using easyCBM ® reading tests in Washington state. The cross-validation study analyzes data from the 2009-2010 academic year for easyCBM® reading measures. A sample of approximately 900 students per grade, randomly split into two groups of roughly the same size, was used for this study. Students state test performance classification (passing/not passing) on the Measurements of Student Progress (MSP) state test in Washington was used as the criterion. Optimal cut scores were identified for each of the randomly split groups with a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Results indicated reasonably stable cut scores between groups. Further, the overall area under the ROC curve (AUC) was not statistically different between groups for any measurement occasion at any grade, providing strong evidence or the validity of identified cut scores as optimal to predict student performance classification on the Washington state large-scale assessment. Irvin, P. S., Park, B. J., Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1109

Progress Mmonitoring Instrument Development: Silent Reading Fluency, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension (Technical Report No. 1110). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is designed to measure students’ academic status andgrowth so the effectiveness of instruction may be evaluated. In the most popular forms of reading CBM, the student’s oral reading fluency is assessed. This behavior is difficult to sample in a computer-based format, a limitation that may be a function of the lack of available measures forsilent reading fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. In this technical report, we describe the development of three specific CBM reading measures designed for a computer format: silent reading fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Nese, J. F. T., Anderson, D., Hoelscher, K., Tindal, G. & Alonzo, J.  TechRpt_1110

easyCBM® Slope Reliability: Letter Names, Word Reading Fluency, and Passage Reading Fluency (Technical Report No. 1111). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In the current study, we evaluated the reliability of score changes (i.e., slope) for the easyCBM® letter names, word reading fluency, and passage reading fluency measures. Data came from a sample of convenience and included students taking at least three tests of one measure type during one academic year (up to 38 weeks). Data were organized into bi-weekly segments and a growth model for two parallel processes was conducted, with “A” weeks (2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 8A, and 9A) in one process and “B” weeks (2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7B, 8B, and 9B) in the other. A linear growth model was conducted in each process and the individual slopes were estimated within the growth modeling framework. Then, the reliability of the slope was estimated as the correlation between individual slopes from the two parallel processes with a
correction by the Spearman-Brown formula. Patarapichayatham, C., Anderson, D., Irvin, P. S., Kamata, A., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1111

Instrument and Survey Analysis Technical Report: Program Implementation Survey (Technical Report No. 1112). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical document provides guidance to educators on the creation and interpretation of survey instruments, particularly as they relate to an analysis of program implementation. Illustrative examples are drawn from a survey of educators related to the use of the easyCBM learning system. This document includes specific sections on considerations related to sampling plans; instrument creation; and gathering, analyzing, and reporting of survey results. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1112

2010

Making the Good Even Better: Feedback from easyCBM Focus Groups, School Year 2009/2010 (Technical Report No. 1001). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report provides a summary of feedback from teachers, administrators, and support personnel who used the easyCBM progress monitoring and benchmark assessment system during school year 2009/2010. Data were gathered from semi-structured focus groups conducted during the 2010 easyCBM August Institute at the University of Oregon. Results have been used to prioritize enhancements to the easyCBM system and identify additional areas of need for future development and training. Alonzo, J., Tindal, G. & Lai, C. F.  TechRpt_1001

The Alignment of easyCBM Math Measures to Curriculum Standards(Technical Report No. 1002). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The purpose of this study was to examine the alignment of the easyCBM® mathematics benchmark and progress monitoring measures to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Curriculum Focal Points (NCTM, 2006). Based on Webb’s alignment model (1997, 2002), we collected expert judgments on individual math items across a
sampling of forms for grades K, 1, and 3-8. We found generally strong alignment across grade levels, focal points, and test forms between the easyCBM® mathematics items and the content standards. Nese, J. F. T., Lai, C. F., Anderson, D., Park, B. J., Tindal, G. & Alonzo, J. TechRpt_1002

Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Primary-Level Reading Measures (Grades K-1), 2009-2010 Version. (Technical Report No. 1003). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we provide the results of a series of studies on the technical adequacy of the early reading measures available on the easyCBM® assessment system. The results from the two-level hierarchical linear growth model analyses suggest that the reliability of the slope estimates for the easyCBM® reading measures are strong, with some exceptions. The growth reliabilities tend to decrease as grade-level increases, and were generally weaker for students who began the year as higher achieving, the latter of which could be explained by a ceiling effect. Results from the regression analyses examining the relation between the spring easyCBM® measures and the SAT-10 provide evidence supporting the concurrent and predictive validity of easyCBM ® for grades K and 1. The models were statistically significant for both grades, explaining 73% and 58% of the variance in SAT-10 respectively. Finally, the overall predictive validity coefficients for the slope of improvement for all students in easyCBM® reading measures across grades were positive. Students with lower initial fall scores on the LS and WRF measures across grades (first and second quartile) had the highest rate of growth compared to other quartiles, with moderate predictive validity coefficients in the 0.50s and 0.60s. Lai, C. F., Nese, J. F. T., Jamgochian, E. M., Kamata, A., Anderson, D., Park, B. J., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1003

Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Grade 2 Reading Measures (Technical Report No. 1004). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we provide reliability and validity evidence for the easyCBM® Reading measures for grade 2 (word and passage reading fluency and multiple choice reading comprehension). Evidence for reliability includes internal consistency and item invariance. Evidence for validity includes concurrent, predictive, and construct validities for performance level scores, as well as slope of improvement. Reliability of alternate forms and content validity were analyzed previously (references to previous technical reports are provided). Internal consistency, split-half reliability, and reliability of growth slopes were moderate. For concurrent and predictive validities, multiple choice reading comprehension was a better predictor of SAT-10 scores than either word or passage reading fluency. Construct validity was supported by strong model fit indices. Overall, predictive validity coefficients for all students on all measures were positive and low. Jamgochian, E. M., Park, B. J., Nese, J. F. T., Lai, C. F., Sáez. L., Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1004

Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Reading Measures (Grades 3-7), 2009-2010 Version (Technical Report No. 1005). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this series of studies, we investigated the technical adequacy of three curriculum-based measures used as benchmarks and for monitoring progress in three critical reading- related skills: fluency, reading comprehension, and vocabulary. In particular, we examined the following easyCBM measurement across grades 3-7 at fall, winter, and spring time-points: internal consistency of the reading comprehension measure, construct and criterion-related validity, and practical utility for classifying student level performance. Data were analyzed both as an aggregated grade-level sample (approximately 3700 students per grade) and within ethnic background, achievement quartile, special education eligibility, and English Language Learner (ELL) status subgroups. Sáez. L., Park, B. J., Nese, J. F. T., Jamgochian, E. M., Lai, C. F., Anderson, D., Kamata, A., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1005

Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Primary-Level Mathematics Measures (Grades K-2), 2009-2010 Version (Technical Report No. 1006). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In the following technical report, we present evidence of the technical adequacy of the easyCBM® math measures in grades K-2. In addition to reliability information, we present criterion-related validity evidence, both concurrent and predictive, and construct validity evidence. The results represent data gathered throughout the 2009 / 2010 school year in school districts in the Pacific Northwest. Anderson, D., Lai, C. F., Nese, J. F. T., Park, B. J., Sáez. L., Jamgochian, E. M., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1006

Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Mathematics Measures: Grades 3-8, 2009-2010 Version (Technical Report No. 1007). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, data are presented on the practical utility, reliability, and validity of the easyCBM® mathematics (2009-2010 version) measures for students in grades 3-8 within four districts in two states. Analyses include: minimum acceptable within-year growth; minimum acceptable year-end benchmark performance; internal and split-half reliabilities; reliability of the slope estimates; construct, concurrent, and predictive validity; and predictive validity of the slope estimates. Results demonstrate the technical adequacy of easyCBM® mathematics measures and add to the research on the technical properties of curriculum-based measurement (CBM).Nese, J. F. T., Lai, C. F., Anderson, D., Jamgochian, E. M., Kamata, A., Sáez. L., Park, B. J., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1007

Diagnostic Efficiency of easyCBM Mathematics: Washington State (Technical Report No. 1008). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. easyCBM ® is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention framework. Educators using easyCBM ® are often interested in using the results to predict students’ state test performance. In the following technical document, we report diagnostic efficiency statistics using a sample from three districts across the state of Washington. The Washington state test was the criterion in a Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. In addition to diagnostic efficiency statistics, optimal cut scores are reported for predicting whether students will reach the proficiency cut score on the Washington state test. Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_1008

Diagnostic Efficiency of easyCBM Nath: Oregon (Technical Report No. 1009). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The easyCBM ® assessment system is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention framework. Educators using easyCBM ® are often interested in using the results to predict students’ state test performance. In the following technical document, we report diagnostic efficiency statistics using a large sample from three districts across the state. The Oregon state test was the criterion in a Receiver Operator Characteristics curve analysis. In addition to diagnostic efficiency statistics, optimal cut scores are reported for predicting whether students will meet expectations on the Oregon state test. Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1009

easyCBM Mathematics Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Washington State Test (Technical Report No. 1010). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. easyCBM® is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention (RTI) framework. Part of the purpose of easyCBM® is to help educators identify students who may be at risk for failure. Often, students deemed at-risk are those who would be predicted to not pass the state test. Previous research has shown that educators using easyCBM® may classify students as at-risk or not for passing the Oregon state test with a high degree of accuracy. In this technical report, we report on an extension of this research, examining the relation between easyCBM® and the test used for accountability in Washington state. We conduct regression and correlation analyses to examine the relationship between the measures, and use scatterplots to view this relationship with respect to cut scores. Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1010

easyCBM Mathematics Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Oregon State Test (Technical Report No. 1011). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we present the results of a study examining the relation between the math measures available on the easyCBM ® online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system and the Oregon statewide assessment of mathematics. Designed for use within a response to intervention (RTI) framework, easyCBM ® is intended to help educators identify students who may be at risk for failure. Often, students deemed at-risk are those who would not be predicted to pass the state test. In Oregon, new performance level standards were adopted for the 2010-2011 school year. We use regression and correlation analyses to examine the relation between easyCBM ® and Oregon’s state test, paying particular attention to the predictive accuracy given the new performance standards. Anderson, D., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_1011

Error Analysis in Mathematics (Technical Report No. 1012). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Error analysis is a method commonly used to identify the cause of student errors when they make consistent mistakes. It is a process of reviewing a student’s work and
then looking for patterns of misunderstanding. Errors in mathematics can be factual, procedural, or conceptual, and may occur for a number of reasons. Lai, C. F.  TechRpt_1012

2009

The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use With the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 5 (Technical Report No. 0901). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon.In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM®, an online  progress monitoringassessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to approximately 2,800 students per grade from schools across the United States in November and December of 2008 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods, results, and discussion sections. Lai, C. F., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_0901

The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use With the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 3 (Technical Report No. 0902). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM®, an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to approximately 2,800 students per grade from schools across the United States in November and December of 2008 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods, results, and discussion sections. Alonzo, J., Lai, C. F. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_0902

The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use With the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 4 (Technical Report No. 0903). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series ofmathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM®, an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to approximately 2,800 students per grade from schools across the United States in November and December of 2008 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods, results, and discussion sections. Alonzo, J., Lai, C. F. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_0903

The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use With the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 8 (Technical Report No. 0904). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon.In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM®, an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to approximately 2,800 students per grade from schools across the United States in November and December of 2008 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods, results, and discussion sections. Lai, C. F., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_0904

Analysis of Teacher Accommodation Recommendations for a Large-Scale Test (Technical Report No. 0905). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers’ accommodation recommendations for students during large-scale tests using two different methods to assist teachers with the decision- making process. Then we present descriptive data on teacher recommended accommodations for two case students who had presenting data to warrant changes in the manner in which they should be tested. The most important variables we addressed in the accommodations teachers recommended as the (a) number of them, (b) their level of detail, and (c) their variety. The outcomes from the data support the need for increased accommodation training and further development of tools to aide teachers in the decision-making process. Mariano, G., Tindal, G., Carrizales, D. & Lenhardt, B.  TechRpt_0905

Alternate Form and Test-Retest Reliability of easyCBM Reading Measures (Technical Report No. 0906). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. We report the results of a test‐retest and alternate form reliability study of grade 1, 3, 5, and 8 reading measures from the easyCBM assessment system. Approximately 50 students in each grade participated in the study. In Grade 1, we studied the following measures: Phoneme Segmenting, Letter Sounds, Letter Names, Word Reading Fluency, and Passage Reading Fluency. In Grade 3, we studied Word and Passage Reading Fluency and Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension. In both Grades 5 and 8, we studied Passage Reading Fluency and Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension. Correlations for the test‐retest analyses ranged from .45 to .97. Correlations for the alternate form analyses ranged from .76 to .97. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_0906

The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use With the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 6 (Technical Report No. 0907). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM®, an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to approximately 2,800 students per grade from schools across the United States in November and December of 2008 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods, results, and discussion sections. Lai, C. F., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_0907

The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use With the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 7 (Technical Report No. 0908). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM®, an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to approximately 2,800 students per grade from schools across the United States in November and December of 2008 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods, results, and discussion sections. Lai, C. F., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_0908

Criterion-Related Evidence Uing easyCBM® Reading Measures and Student Demographics to Predict State Test Performance in Grades 3-8 (Technical Report No. 0910). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, data are presented on the predictive and concurrent relation between various student demographic variables (gender, race/ethnicity, special education status, Title 1 status, English language learning status, and economic disadvantage) and three reading easyCBMs (passage reading fluency, vocabulary, and multiple-choice comprehension) with a criterion measure of the Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (OAKS). The findings are replicated for two school districts and across three time periods. Consistently, a significant amount of the variance for the criterion measure is explained by the combination of variables, particularly from the three reading measures. Tindal, G., Nese, J. T. & Alonzo, J.  TechRpt_0910

Internal Consistency of General Outcome Measures in Grades 1-8 (Technical Report No. 0915). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. We developed alternate forms of a math test for use in both screening students at risk of failure and monitoring their progress over time. In this technical report, we present results of the screener, used in the fall of 2009. The 48-item test was aligned to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum Focal Point Standards and was administered on a computer to all students from a single school district. The data were analyzed using Cronbach’s alpha to reflect the internal consistency of the test forms. The results suggest sufficient consistency to use the scores in screening students within a district. Anderson, D., Tindal, G. & Alonzo, J.  TechRpt_0915

IRT Analysis of General Outcome Measures in Grades 1-8 (Technical Report No. 0916). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. We present scaling outcomes for mathematics assessments used in the fall to screen students a risk of failing to learn the knowledge and skills described in the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Focal Point Standards. At each grade level, the assessment consisted of a 48-item test with three 16-item sub-test sets aligned to the essential focal points at that grade level. All assessments were scaled using item response theory (IRT) with a 1 PL model. We describe several summary statistics of the item, including the range of measure statistics, outfit, expected and observed performance, and overall person reliability indices. Our findings suggest all items functioned well and may be useful in identifying students in need of instructional supports. Alonzo, J., Anderson, D. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_0916

Local Normative Data on easyCBM® Reading and Mathematics: Fall 2009 (Technical Report No. 0918). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. We developed equivalent, alternate forms of easyCBM® in reading (n=20 forms) and mathematics (n=13 forms) with different skills reflective of the National Reading Panel (NRP) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), respectively. We then took three forms to use as screening measures in the fall, winter, and spring so educators could identify students at risk of failure and establish benchmarks. In this report, we present normative data for fall 2009 on all measures in grades 1 through 8. These data reflect the results from several districts and are reported for all districts and disaggregated for each district. Tindal, G., Alonzo, J. & Anderson, D. TechRpt_0918

The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use With the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 1 (Technical Report No. 0919). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grade 1. These measures, available as part of easyCBM®, an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2008 and administered to approximately 2800 students from schools across the United States in March through June of 2009 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common introduction but unique methods, results, and discussion sections. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_0919

The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use With the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 2 (Technical Report No. 0920). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching: University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM®, an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to approximately 2,800 students per grade from schools across the United States in November and December of 2008 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common abstract and introduction but unique methods, results, and discussion sections. Alonzo, J., Lai, C. F. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_0920

The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use With the 2% and General Education Populations: Kindergarten (Technical Report No. 0921). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon.  In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in kindergarten. These measures, available as part of easyCBM®, an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2008 and administered to approximately 2800 students from schools across the United States in March through June of 2009 using a common item design to allow all items to be estimated on the same scale within each grade level. We analyzed the results of the piloting using a one parameter logistic (1PL) Rasch analysis. Because the results of these analyses are quite lengthy, we present the results for each grade’s analysis in its own technical report, all sharing a common introduction but unique methods, results, and discussion sections. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_0921

Hierarchical Linear Modeling of Passage Reading Fluency Growth as a Function of Student Characteristics (Technical Report No. 0922). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon.  All students from grades 3 through 8 were tested in the fall, winter, and spring of 2009 on passage reading fluency (PRF) measures from easyCBM®. Student characteristics were analyzed for influence on reading growth. The results showed the negative effects from being a male or a student of color, coming from an economically disadvantaged environment, and receiving either special education or Title I services. Student characteristics influenced both intercept and slope, with the models occasionally revealing overall effects. Nevertheless, the patterns changed considerably over grades in the relation between intercept and slope as well as the values for student characteristics. Tindal, G., Nese, J. F. & Alonzo, J.  TechRpt_0922

2008

The Development of Fifth-Grade Passage Reading Fluency Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System (Technical Report No. 43). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes the development of fifth grade progress monitoring measures in the area of Passage Reading Fluency. This measure was designed to target the fluency component of a developmental model of reading. Twenty alternate forms were written by graduate students and reviewed by the lead author. The passages were piloted and mean scores were compared as a measure of difficulty. In response to these data, the passages were brought into closer alignment by identifying nine passages that showed similar difficulty level and adjusting the remaining passages to match this level. Data on the difficult of each passage and a summary of revisions are presented. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_43

The Development of Middle School Passage Reading Fluency Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System (Technical Report No. 46). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes the development of progress monitoring measures in the area of Reading Comprehension. Measures were developed for grades 6 through 8. Twenty alternate forms of each measure were created. Passages were written by graduate students and reviewed by the lead author, as well as teachers and panels of graduate students. The consistency of the alternate forms was analyzed using classical statistics, including differences and mean correlations. Information about the relative difficulty of the passages was used to identify nine passages that were of similar difficulty levels. The other passages were adjusted to be better aligned with this set in terms of difficulty. Data on the difficulty of each passage and a summary of revisions are presented. Alonzo, J., Park, B. J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_46

The Reliability of Teacher Decision-Making in Recommending Accommodations for Large-Scale Tests (Technical Report No. 0801). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this paper we review different methods for teachers to recommend accommodations in large- scale tests. Then we present data on the stability of their judgments on variables relevant to this decision-making process. The outcomes from the judgments support the need for a more explicit model. Four general categories are presented: student proficiency, ease of completing various (test relevant) activities, benefit from the use of various accommodations, and provision of accommodations in the classroom. Both mean level of ratings and stability of ratings argue against continued use of informal systems. Tindal, G., Lee, D. & Ketterlin-Geller, L. R.   TechRpt_0801

Instrument Development Procedures for Mathematics Measures (Technical Report No. 0802). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The purpose of this study was to develop general outcome measures (GOM) in mathematics so that teachers could focus their instruction on needed prerequisite skills. We describe in detail, the manner in which content-related evidence was established and then present a number of statistical analyses conducted to evaluate the technical adequacy of these measures. The outcomes support the test development process and reflect a series of measures that have potential for use in elementary and middle school mathematics programs. Jung, E., Liu, K., Ketterlin-Geller, L. R. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_0802

Instrument Development Procedures for Silent Reading Measures (Technical Report No. 0803). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The purpose of this study was to develop and gather validity evidence for silent reading fluency passages. A number of passages were written following a traditional story grammar structure (character, setting, events) and placed on a computer for students to read silently. We describe in detail, the manner in which content-related evidence was established and then present a number of statistical analyses conducted to evaluate the technical adequacy of these measures. The outcomes support the test development process and reflect a series of measures that have potential for use in measuring elementary and middle school students’ silent reading fluency. Liu, K., Sundstrom-Hebert, K., Ketterlin-Geller, L. R. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_0803

Examining Item Functioning of Math Screening Measures for Grades 1-8 Students (Technical Report No. 0804). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. BRT Math Screening Measures focus on students’ mathematics performance in grade-level standards for students in grades 1-8. A total of 24 test forms are available with three test forms per grade corresponding to fall, winter, and spring testing periods. Each form contains computation problems and application problems. BRT Math Screening Measures were administered to 6,500 students during the 2006-07 school year. The Rasch Model in Item Response Theory (IRT) is employed to estimate the item difficulties and fit statistics of the test items. We describe this process and then present results of item difficulty and item functioning. Liu, K., Ketterlin-Geller, L. R. Yovanoff, P. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_0804

Instrument Development Procedures for Rapid Reading Rate Measures (Technical Report No. 0805). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this study, we describe the development of rapid reading measures, sentences presented to students in a nearly subliminal manner, with a literal comprehension question asked following their removal. After administering alternate forms of these measures to students, we present the results from three statistical analyses to ascertain their technical adequacy: classical test theory, 1-parameter Item Response Theory (IRT), and 2-parameter IRT. We conclude by noting considerable similarity of the results and recommend all analyses as offering valuable information. Liu, K., Carling, K., Ketterlin-Geller, L. R. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_0805

Instrument Development Procedures for Maze Measures (Technical Report No. 0806). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The purpose of this study was to document the instrument development of maze measures for grades 3-8. Each maze passage contained twelve omitted words that students filled in by choosing the best-fit word from among the provided options. In this technical report, we describe the process of creating, reviewing, and pilot testing the maze measures. We use three analytic approaches for estimating item difficulty of the test items sampled. The findings of content review and data analysis provide evidence supporting this instrument development process. We conclude that these maze measures are a viable reading comprehension assessment for students in grades 3-8, based on the convergence of evidence. Liu, K., Sundstrom-Hebert, K., Ketterlin-Geller, L. R. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_0806

Examining the Technical Adequacy of Fifth-Grade Reading Comprehension Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System (Technical Report No. 0807). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes the development and piloting of reading comprehension measures developed for use by fifth-grade students as part of an online progress monitoring assessment system, http://easycbm.com. Each comprehension measure is comprised of an original work of narrative fiction approximately 1500 words in length followed by 20 selected response questions that sample literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension. All measures were piloted with fifth-grade students attending public schools in the Pacific Northwest, and results were analyzed using Item Response Theory (IRT). Complete results of the pilot testing are presented and discussed. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_0807

Examining the Technical Adequacy of Second-Grade Reading Comprehension Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System (Technical Report No. 0808). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes the development of reading comprehension assessments designed for use as progress monitoring measures appropriate for 2nd grade students. Reading passages were created by elementary and secondary teachers, as well as graduate students. Corresponding items were written by an assessment design expert, and grouped according to cognitive attribute and degree of difficulty. Twenty alternate forms were piloted using a common person/ common item design, in which groups of students took five forms, with overlapping forms across groups. Content and bias reviews were conducted. Additionally, a Rasch analysis was used to determine the approximate difficulty of each item, based on the estimated ability level of each test taker. Items that did not appear to be functioning appropriately were retained and will be examined in a future study with a larger sample size. Alonzo, J., Liu, K. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_0808

Uses of Think Aloud to Verify the Cognitive Attributes in Division of Fractions (Technical Report No. 0809). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The purpose of this technical report is to describe a research study exploring students’ cognitive processing while solving problems related to division of fractions. Four students were interviewed using verbal protocol techniques with the intention of better understanding their cognitive processing when dividing fractions. Information gained from this study was used to verify and revise the cognitive model for division of fractions, which will be subsequently used to guide the development of a cognitive diagnostic test and instructional sequence. Ketterlin-Geller, L. R. & Liu, K. TechRpt_0809

Project DIVIDE instrument Development (Technical Report No. 0810). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this technical report, we describe the development of cognitive diagnostic test items that form the basis of the diagnostic system for Project DIVIDE (Dynamic Instruction Via Individually Designed Environments). The construct underlying the diagnostic test is division of fractions. We include a description of the process we used to identify the cognitive attributes for division of fractions. We present the hierarchical association between attributes that lead up to mastery of the domain. Finally, we describe item writing procedures and evidence for technical adequacy of the resulting item bank. Ketterlin-Geller, L. R., Jung, E., Geller, J. & Yovanoff, P. TechRpt_0810

2007

Examining the Technical Adequacy of Early Literacy Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System: Letter Names, Letter Sounds, and Phoneme Segmenting (Technical Report No. 39). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes the development and piloting of progress monitoring measures in the areas of Letter Names, Letter Sounds, and Phoneme Segmenting. The measures were designed for students in grades K through 2. Measures were created for grades K and 1. Both measures were designed to target the alphabetic principle and phonological awareness components of a developmental model of reading. Twenty alternate forms were created for each measure. For the Letter Names and Letter Sounds measures, pilot studies were conducted to determine the difficulty of each letter in its lower-case and capital form. For the Phoneme Segmenting measure, difficulty data were collected on individual words. Difficulty ratings of each item according to a Rasch analysis are presented in the report. These data were used to create 20 equivalent forms of each measure. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_39

The Development of word and passage reading fluency measures in a progress monitoring assessment system (Technical Report No. 40). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes the development and piloting of progress monitoring measures in the areas of Word Reading and Passage Reading. Measures were created for grades K through 4. Both measures were designed to target the fluency component of a developmental
model of reading. Twenty alternate forms were created for each measure. For the Word Reading measure, alternate forms were created through the development of a word bank arranged by word difficulty. A Rasch analysis was used to estimate the difficulty of each individual word. For the Passage Reading measure, passages were written according to word count and grade level guidelines and reviewed by the lead author as well as an experienced teacher. Correlations and mean differences were used to obtain information on the relative difficulty of each passage. Data on word difficulty were used to create four difficulty bands, which guided the development of alternate forms. Data on passage difficulty were used to bring the passages into closer alignment. These analyses resulted in the development of 20 alternate forms of each measure at each of the target grade levels. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_40

Examining the Technical Adequacy of Reading Comprehension Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System (Technical Report No. 41). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes the development of progress monitoring measures in the area of Reading Comprehension. Twenty alternate forms were created for grades 3 and 4. This measure was designed to target the comprehension component of a developmental model of reading. Passages were written by teachers and graduate students, and corresponding questions were written by an expert in assessment design. The technical adequacy of these measures was assessed through both content review and statistical analysis. Each form was reviewed by a Title 1 Reading Specialist, the lead author, and a panel of special education students. Statistical analysis consisted of a Rasch analysis, which provided information on item difficulty, and a distractor analysis. Items that were not functioning well according to these analyses were revised. Alonzo, J., Liu, K. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_41

Content-Related Evidence for Validity for Mathematics Tests: Teacher Review (Technical Report No. 42). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Behavioral Research and Teaching (BRT) has developed a series of mathematics tests to assist local school districts in identifying students in grades 1-8 who may be at risk of not meeting year-end mathematics achievement goals. The tests were developed using the state mathematics standards for the relevant grade levels and administered to students in fall, winter and spring. In an effort to continuously improve the tests as well as to examine the validity of their uses, school staff from local districts participated in piloting and reviews of the tests from 2003-2006. The 2005-2006 teacher review documented in this technical report was designed to systematically capture feedback on all test items based on the appropriateness of language, concepts, and graphics, as well as bias in language or graphics. This review provides content-related validity evidence for the uses of the test results as screening tools. Martinez, M. I., Ketterlin-Geller, L. R. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_42

2005

Oral Reading Fluency: 90 Years of Measurement (Technical Report No. 33). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Data are presented from a number of different sites in which oral reading fluency was measured using the procedures commonly ascribed to curriculum-based measurement (CBM). This measurement system focuses on automaticity in reading and therefore students are directed to read aloud from grade level passages for one minute, with words read correctly counted. Data are presented across various sites, compiling the outcomes across various passages and depicting the results in both average performance and percentile bands for fall, winter, and spring across grades 1-8. These data are referred to as normative because of the large sample and robust
passage sampling. Hasbrouck, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_33

Measuring Teachers’ Efficacy Working With Diverse Student Needs: Testing a Measurement Model (Technical Report No. 38). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes the development, pilot testing, and revision of a survey instrument designed to measure secondary school teachers’ perceptions of their efficacy working with students from diverse backgrounds. A brief review of relevant literature frames the current study in the context of survey development that is technically adequate. Exploratory factor analysis is used to identify factors within each of four hypothesized latent constructs (alignment, inclusivity, organization, and general efficacy), and the measurement model fit is evaluated to explain their representation. Results suggest that the survey instrument (once revised) is reliable and that the measurement model may adequately fit the data. Alonzo, J., Tindal G. & McCoy, J. TechRpt_38

2004

Analysis of Reading Fluency and Comprehension Measures for 3rd-Grade Students (Technical Report No. 22). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report outlines the results of a correlational study of an Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measure, a Reading Comprehension measure, a Vocabulary measure, and a statewide, large-scale reading assessment. The effects of school income level, gender, ethnicity, Special Education status, and English Language Learner status are also considered. For the ORF, statistically significant differences were found in all of the demographic comparisons. For the Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary tests, statistically significant differences were found in all comparisons except for gender. A correlational analysis indicated a strong correlation between the ORF measure and the Vocabulary test, a moderately strong correlation between the Vocabulary test and the statewide reading assessment, and weak to moderate correlations between all other measures. A regression analysis indicated that ORF, Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary measures predict 25% of the variance in statewide assessment scores. Ketterlin-Geller, L. R. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_22

Analysis of Reading Fluency and Comprehension Measures for Seventh-Grade Students (Technical Report No. 23). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes the results of a correlational study of a seventh grade reading assessment kit containing an Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measure, a District Vocabulary Test, and a District Reading Comprehension Test, consisting of constructed and selected response items. For all assessments, there was no significant difference in performance according to gender. For the Vocabulary test, there was no significant difference in scores between the two alternate forms. For the Reading Comprehension test, there were significant differences in the difficulty of the forms. Due to these differences, forms were analyzed separately in the correlational study. The correlational study indicated a significant positive correlation between all measures, with the highest correlation being between the constructed response section of the Reading Comprehension test and the ORF test. Recommendations are also provided for removing items from the Reading Comprehension test, according to student performance. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_23

Analysis of reading fluency and comprehension measures for sixth-grade students (Technical Report No. 24). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report outlines the results of a correlational study of an Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measure, a District Vocabulary Test, a District Reading Comprehension Test, and a statewide large-scale reading assessment. The effects of gender, ethnicity, Special Education status, and English Language Learner (ELL) status were also considered. For the ORF measure, significant differences in performance were found between alternate forms. A significant performance difference was observed according to Special Education status. There was no significant difference in alternate forms of the Vocabulary Test. No difference was observed in any of the demographic comparisons. For the Reading Comprehension Test, significant differences in performance were observed on alternate forms of the SR portion. Different forms showed different patterns of performance according to the demographic comparisons. A correlational study showed significant positive correlations between all of the measures, with the highest correlation between the SR portion of the Reading Comprehension Test and the statewide assessment. The three district level measures combined predicted 47% of variability in performance on the statewide assessment. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.   TechRpt_24

Analysis of Reading Fluency and Comprehension Measures for First-Grade Students (Technical Report No. 25). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report provides data on the extent to which progress monitoring measures explain reading achievement. The four progress monitoring measures discussed are: letter sounding, phonemic segmentation, oral reading fluency, and comprehension given in either oral or written form. These measures were administered to first grade students in low-and high-income schools. A regression analysis indicated that the Letter Sounding and Phonemic Segmenting tests correlate with each other, as well as the ORF measure, the Listening Comprehension test, and the Constructed Response section of the Reading Comprehension test. However, these measures do not correlate with the Reading Comprehension test. The ORF and Reading Comprehension measures correlated with all other first-grade reading measures.
Another important finding was that more students from low-income schools needed to take the Listening Comprehension test rather than the Reading Comprehension test. This finding indicates a potential area of concern for school districts.
Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_25

Analysis of Reading Fluency and Comprehension Measures for Fourth-Grade Students (Technical Report No. 27). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report outlines the results of a correlational study of an Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measure, a District Vocabulary Test, a District Reading Comprehension Test, and a statewide large-scale reading assessment. The effects of school income level, gender, ethnicity, Special Education status, and English Language Learner (ELL) status were also considered. For the ORF measure, statistically significant differences were found in all of the demographic comparisons. For the District Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension Tests, significant differences were found for all comparisons except for gender. Additionally, the two alternate forms of the District Reading Comprehension did not appear to be equivalent. Significant correlations were found between all of the measures included in the study, with the highest correlation between the ORF measure and the statewide reading assessment. A regression analysis indicated that the three district measures explain 49% of the variance in statewide reading test scores, with ORF contributing most to the explained variance. Overall, the ORF measure appears to be a strong predictor of performance on the statewide reading test. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_27

Analysis of Reading Fluency and Comprehension Measures for Fifth-Grade Students (Technical Report No. 28). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report describes an analysis of a fifth-grade District Reading assessment kit containing Oral Reading Fluency (ORF), Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension measures. The comparability of forms was analyzed for the ORF and Reading Comprehension measures. For all measures, performance was compared across gender, ethnicity, special education status, ELL status, and school income level. For the ORF measure, no significant difference was found between the two alternate forms. Significant differences were found for all demographic comparisons. For the District Vocabulary test, significant differences were found for all demographic comparisons except for gender. For the District Reading Comprehension assessment, significant differences in difficulty were found across the two alternate forms. For Form A, significant performance differences were found in all demographic comparisons except for ethnicity. For Form B, significant performance differences were found in all demographic comparisons except for school income level. A summary of item difficulties and discriminating powers is also provided for the Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension assessments. Beghetto, R. & Tindal, G. TechRpt_28

Use of Focus Groups to Inform the Construction of a Universally Designed Mathematics Test (Technical Report No. 29). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Focus groups were used to examine the needs of students taking a computer adaptive math assessment. The assessment designed using universal design and item response theory. Focus groups included teachers, administrators, child advocacy groups, and 3rd grade students and parents from the following groups: students with disabilities, students in general education, and students learning English as a second language. Focus groups identified using the mouse, understanding directions and accessing the format of the items as sources of confusion. Additionally, a survey suggested that English Language Learners have differential access to computers. These findings will be used to revise the assessment. Ketterlin-Geller, L. R., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_29

District Reading Assessments, Spring Administration (Technical Report No. 30). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report presents an overview of a reading assessment used by a large school district in the Pacific Northwest. It provides sufficient background information to enable those unfamiliar with the assessment to understand the various subtests that comprise it as well as its development and application in the district for making screening, grouping, and evaluation decisions. Compiled performance data from the spring 2004 assessment cycle is presented for all students in the school district in kindergarten through eighth grade for all subtests and for the sample of ninth grade students who were involved in the piloting of the grade nine measures. The technical adequacy of the assessment is explored using both descriptive statistics and item response theory. Suggestions for improvements to the various subtests are discussed. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_30

Instrument Development: Examining the Appropriateness of Student and Teacher Surveys for Determining the Need for Testing Accommodations (Technical Report No. 31). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This technical report documents the procedures followed in developing student and teacher surveys to gather information about the accommodations students are accustomed to receiving and those that might be beneficial on a mathematics test delivered on the computer. It provides documentation of the technical adequacy of the survey instruments, as part of the larger effort to develop and validate our computerized accommodations recommendation and delivery system. Information is provided about the process we used to gather content-related validity evidence and revise the measures. Data from the content review and piloting procedures are presented. Logistical guidance for other researchers piloting survey instruments is provided. Alonzo, J., Ketterlin-Geller, L. R. & Tindal, G.  TechRpt_31

2003

The Effect of Concept Mazes in a Ninth Grade Language Arts Classroom (Technical Report No. 20). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Technology enables us to improve on the maze, delivering it via the internet, and thereby making it possible for students to receive almost instant feedback on their performance. To isolate the components of the MAZE that influence student learning, we designed our study in two parts. In Part One, we tested the effect of regular use of concept-based versus random mazes without feedback. In Part Two, we shifted our focus. All students received concept-based mazes, but students received different kinds of feedback on their performance. Together, the two parts of this study add to our understanding of the components of the MAZE that influence student learning. Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G.    TechRpt_20

1989

The Reliability, Sensitivity, and Criterion-Related Validity of Concept Comparisons and Concept Maps for Assessing Reading Comprehension (Research Report No. 3). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. Most current reading assessment methods do not reflect the reading comprehension construct that has emerged from information processing research. Current methods rarely account for differences in relevant background knowledge or schema held by students prior to reading, and they are insensitive to the structural nature of text information and student knowledge. This study investigated the reliabi1ity and concurrent, criterion-related validity of concept compari­son (CC) ratings and computer-derived multidimensional scaling (MDS) maps for reading comprehension assessment. Reliability was assayed by comparing CC ratings and maps produced independently by five teachers while they read eight 250-word passages from science and social studies texts. Parker, R. & Tindal, G.  RsrchRpt_3

Combining Informal Teacher Judgment and Objective Test Scores to Make Cross-Classroom Reading Group Placements (Research Report No. 4). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. The two purposes of this study are to (a) demonstrate a method of summarizing and displaying test data to support teachers’ decisions on group placement, and (b) apply this method to cross-classroom reading group placements, using data from three reading as­sessment procedures (Analytical Reading Inventory,Maze, and Oral Reading Fluency). The study emphasizes the presentation of objective test data in a manner congruent with typical elementary classroom decision-making. The three reading tests were administered to Grade 4-6 students who had been placed in existing reading groups by teacher consen­sus on the basis of classroom observations and a variety of informal criteria. Discriminant function analysis (DF A) was used to estimate the classification accuracy of each of the three measures. The DFA procedure also yielded stacked area graphs, which allow a teacher to judge the relative certainty with which a given student can be assigned to each of the five reading groups. The teacher also can judge when to rely on alternate, informal criteria.  Parker, R., Hasbrouck, J. & Tindal, G.    RsrchRpt_4

The Utility of Pflaum’s Oral Reading Miscue Categories (Research Report No. 5). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In this study, a derivation of Goodman and Burke’s (1972) miscue analysis developed by Pflaum (1980a, 1980b) was investigated. It was applied to the audio-taped reading of three, 250-word passages by 77 students in Grades 4, 5, and 6. Parker, R., Hasbrouck, J. & Tindal, G.    RsrchRpt_5

Use of Two Metrics in Direct Observation for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Special Education Programs (Research Report 6). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. In the past decade, a number of methodologies have been proposed for obseroation in the classroom. Generally, research has focused on the use of one instrument and has rarely reported results from validation investigations. The current study, however, employed two direct obseroation instruments concurrently within two reading program􀀚Breaking the Code and an Eclectic Program:-in middle school resource rooms. Parker, R. & Tindal, G.   RsrchRpt_6

Use of a Written Retell Task With Secondary Students (Research Report 9). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. This study addresses the adoption of CBM in secondary settings. A written retell measurement task was used to sample performance in a functional task necessary for success in content-area classes. Students from three grade levels (6, 8, and 11) were assessed using written retell along with two other criterion measures: a Maze comprehension task and a creative writing sample. The retell measure was scored with several metrics, and the data analyzed to ascertain changes across grade levels and relationships among different metrics. The findings are interpreted as supportive of using curriculum-based measurement formats in secondary settings.  Parker, R. & Tindal, G. RsrchRpt_9